The Schengen Border Code provides EU Member States with a single set of rules for the control of people`s external borders, entry rules and the duration of short-term stays in the Schengen area. By harmonising these rules, the EU seeks to make them more effective while increasing their transparency. Similarly, EU Member States have harmonised conditions and procedures through the visa code for the issuance of short-stay visas (i.e. residence visas of no more than three months). They also drew up a list of countries (regulation (EC) No. 2018/1806) whose nationals are subject to the visa requirement for entry into the EU, as well as a list of countries for which this requirement is waived (extended residence visas and residence permits for visits of more than three months remain subject to national conditions). Only three Member States – Ireland, Sweden and the United Kingdom – decided to open their borders immediately, the first two, mainly because their expanding and relatively open economies needed labour, and the latter because it was believed that their regulated labour market was able to maintain wages at the collectively agreed level. Companies can also apply to be treated as licensed economic operators, a status recognized internationally, which proves that a company`s customs control procedures meet high standards. Approved economic operators benefit from faster and cheaper demands from certain customs regimes and have less control over their shipments at the border. The Schengen Agreement is a treaty that has led to the creation of the European Schengen area, in which internal border controls have been largely abolished. It was signed on 14 June 1985 by five of the ten Member States of the European Economic Community at the time and came into force ten years later, with all the countries of the European Union (EU), with the exception of the United Kingdom and Ireland, having joined in the coming years.
European but non-EU countries, including Switzerland, Norway and Iceland The Northern Ireland Protocol removes the need for border controls on the island of Ireland, but establishes new rules for goods migrating from Britain to Northern Ireland. The Joint Committee (the joint body of the UNITED Kingdom and the EU created for the approval of the withdrawal agreement) and the UK government have yet to decide how they work in practice. Workers have also been recruited by bilateral agreements outside Europe, notably to work in dirty, dangerous and blunt jobs – called 3Ds – in the construction, mining and transport sectors. For example, a considerable number of migrant workers emigrated from Turkey to Germany, Algeria to France and the countries of the British Commonwealth to Great Britain. The free movement of people is a fundamental right that the EU guarantees to its citizens. It allows any EU citizen to travel, work and live in any EU country without any special formalities. Schengen cooperation strengthens this freedom by allowing citizens to cross internal borders without being subject to border controls.